How to Make Formal Polite Form from Infinitive Form - Present Tense

1. Infinitive Form (Dictionary Form):  

  • Infinitive form of any verb ends with -다.
  • Example>
    • 살다          to live
    • 먹다          to eat
    • 좋다          to be good
    • 마시다       to drink
    • 가다          to go
    • 오다          to come

 

2. Find the stem from a verb

  • Take out -다 from the infinitive form and what is left is the stem
  • Examples>
    • 살다     ---->   살
    • 먹다     ---->   먹
    • 좋다     ---->   좋
    • 마시다  ---->   마시
    • 가다     ---->   가
    • 오다     ---->   오

 

3. Add -ㅂ니다/-습니다 to the stem

  • If the last syllable of the stem has a final consonant (batchim), add -습니다.
  • If the last syllable of the stem does not have a final consonant (batchim), add -ㅂ니다.
  • Example> 
    • 먹다     ---->   먹습니다
    • 좋다     ---->   좋습니다
    • 마시다  ---->   마십니다
    • 가다     ---->   갑니다
    • 오다     ---->   옵니다

 

4. If the last syllable of the stem has the final consonant ㄹ (ㄹ batchim), omit ㄹ and add -ㅂ니다.

  • 살다     ------>  사 + ㅂ니다     ------>  삽니다 
  • 만들다  ------>  만드 + ㅂ니다  ------> 만듭니다

 

*** To make a question, add ㅂ니까/습니까

 

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When the Final Syllable of the Stem has Batchim (Final Consonant)

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When the Final Syllable of the Stem has No Batchim (No Final Consonant)

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When the Final Syllable of the Stem has ㄹ Batchim (Final Consonant)

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How to Make a Casual Polite Form from Infinitive Form - Present Tense

 

 

1. Infinitive Form (Dictionary Form):  

  • Infinitive form of any verb ends with -다.
  • Example>
    • 살다          to live
    • 먹다          to eat
    • 좋다          to be good
    • 마시다       to drink
    • 가다          to go
    • 오다          to come

 

2. Find the stem from a verb

  • Take out -다 from the infinitive form and what is left is the stem
  • Examples>
    • 살다     ---->   살
    • 먹다     ---->   먹
    • 좋다     ---->   좋
    • 마시다  ---->   마시
    • 가다     ---->   가
    • 오다     ---->   오

 

3. Add -아요/-어요 to the stem

  • If the last syllable of the stem has a positive vowel (ㅏ or ㅗ), add -아요.
  • If the last syllable of the stem is not ㅏ or ㅗ, add -어요.
    • Exception> 하다 (to do) ---> 해요  (하+여요)
    • Exception> 이다 (to be) ---> 이에요  or  예요

 

4. Contract two neighboring vowels if possible.

  • 마시 + 어요 ---> 마셔요
  • 가 + 아요 ------> 가요
  • 오 + 아요 ------> 와요

 

All the verbs that follow the above rule are called the regular verbs.

 

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅏ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅗ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅓ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅜ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “l”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅐ” or “ㅔ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅡ”
 

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The Difference of Korean Adjectives vs. English Adjectives

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Just like English, Korean verbs conjugate to reflect tense, nuances, etc. Unlike English, however, Korean adjectives also conjugate just like verbs with slightly different rules. For that reason, Korean adjectives are often called “descriptive verbs” in many textbooks for English-speaking students. You can think of Korean adjectives as a combination of a linking verb (is, am, are, was, etc.) and an adjective in English. For example,

 

  • 날씨가 좋아요. (The weather is nice.)

  • 날씨가 좋았어요. (The weather was nice.)

  • 날씨가 좋을 거예요. (The weather will be nice.)

 

In that sense, both verbs and adjectives conjugate in Korean.

 

 

 

Useful Adverbs (Basic)

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Time

  • 어제 Yesterday
  • 오늘 Today
  • 내일 Tomorrow
     
  • ~전에 Before ~
  • ~후에 After ~
  • 예전에 Long time ago
     
  • 지금 Right now
  • 방금 Just (before)
  • 아까 Before (today)
  • 이따 Later (today)
  • 나중에 Later (unspecific)
     
  • 일찍 Early
  • 늦게 Late

 

Frequency

  • 항상 Always
  • 자주 Often
  • 가끔 Sometimes
  • 전혀 Never, Not at all
     
  • 거의 Almost
  • 보통 Usually
     
  • 매일 Everyday
  • 매주 Every week
  • 매달 Every month
  • 매년 Every year
  • 매번 Every time

 

Again

  • 또 Again
  • 다시 Again

 

Uncertainty

  • 혹시 By any chance~?
  • 아마 Maybe
  • 아마도 Maybe

 

Emphasis

  • 진짜 Really
  • 정말 Really
  • 아주 Very
  • 매우 Very
  • 되게 Very (colloquial)

 

Best / Most

  • 가장 the most
  • 제일 the best, the most
  • 최고 the best


 

Amount

  • 조금 A little
  • 많이 A lot
  • 거의 Almost
  • 더 More, Better

 

Already / Yet, Still

  • 벌써 Already
  • 아직 Yet / Still

 

Fast / Slow

  • 빨리 Fast
  • 천천히 Slow