Basic

How to Make a Casual Polite Form from Infinitive Form - Present Tense

 

 

1. Infinitive Form (Dictionary Form):  

  • Infinitive form of any verb ends with -다.
  • Example>
    • 살다          to live
    • 먹다          to eat
    • 좋다          to be good
    • 마시다       to drink
    • 가다          to go
    • 오다          to come

 

2. Find the stem from a verb

  • Take out -다 from the infinitive form and what is left is the stem
  • Examples>
    • 살다     ---->   살
    • 먹다     ---->   먹
    • 좋다     ---->   좋
    • 마시다  ---->   마시
    • 가다     ---->   가
    • 오다     ---->   오

 

3. Add -아요/-어요 to the stem

  • If the last syllable of the stem has a positive vowel (ㅏ or ㅗ), add -아요.
  • If the last syllable of the stem is not ㅏ or ㅗ, add -어요.
    • Exception> 하다 (to do) ---> 해요  (하+여요)
    • Exception> 이다 (to be) ---> 이에요  or  예요

 

4. Contract two neighboring vowels if possible.

  • 마시 + 어요 ---> 마셔요
  • 가 + 아요 ------> 가요
  • 오 + 아요 ------> 와요

 

All the verbs that follow the above rule are called the regular verbs.

 

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅏ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅗ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅓ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅜ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “l”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅐ” or “ㅔ”

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When the final Vowel of the Stem is  “ㅡ”
 

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Useful Adverbs (Basic)

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Time

  • 어제 Yesterday
  • 오늘 Today
  • 내일 Tomorrow
     
  • ~전에 Before ~
  • ~후에 After ~
  • 예전에 Long time ago
     
  • 지금 Right now
  • 방금 Just (before)
  • 아까 Before (today)
  • 이따 Later (today)
  • 나중에 Later (unspecific)
     
  • 일찍 Early
  • 늦게 Late

 

Frequency

  • 항상 Always
  • 자주 Often
  • 가끔 Sometimes
  • 전혀 Never, Not at all
     
  • 거의 Almost
  • 보통 Usually
     
  • 매일 Everyday
  • 매주 Every week
  • 매달 Every month
  • 매년 Every year
  • 매번 Every time

 

Again

  • 또 Again
  • 다시 Again

 

Uncertainty

  • 혹시 By any chance~?
  • 아마 Maybe
  • 아마도 Maybe

 

Emphasis

  • 진짜 Really
  • 정말 Really
  • 아주 Very
  • 매우 Very
  • 되게 Very (colloquial)

 

Best / Most

  • 가장 the most
  • 제일 the best, the most
  • 최고 the best


 

Amount

  • 조금 A little
  • 많이 A lot
  • 거의 Almost
  • 더 More, Better

 

Already / Yet, Still

  • 벌써 Already
  • 아직 Yet / Still

 

Fast / Slow

  • 빨리 Fast
  • 천천히 Slow

Useful Adjectives (Descriptive Verbs)

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Imagine you are traveling a foreign country.  You go to a restaurant, order food and eat it.  The server comes and asks how the food is, and you want to say "Good!"  Or, let's say you go to a historic site, see a magnificent sculpture and want to say "Beautiful!" or "Amazing!" to your local friend or a guide.   All you need to say is those adjectives in that language. Don't worry about the subject, object, all that grammar stuff. 

A language is all about sharing your thoughts and feeling and for that very reason, learning basic adjectives is a great place to start. 

 

Below are some useful adjectives you can immediately use. 
These adjectives are placed at the end of a sentence.

 

Example>
It is cute.   귀여워요.   (귀여워요 = cute)
The puppy is cute.  강아지가 귀여워요.  (강아지 = puppy,  ~가 = subjective particle)

(For these adjectives to directly modify a noun, such as a "cute puppy", you need different conjugation rules, which we will cover later on.)

 

Human Description

  • 귀여워요     Cute

  • 아름다워요  Beautiful

  • 예뻐요        Pretty

  • 잘생겼어요  Handsome

  • 못생겼어요  Ugly

  • 멋있어요     Cool/Stylish

  • 친절해요     Kind/Friendly

  • 착해요        Nice

  • 나빠요        Bad

  • 미쳤어요     Crazy

  • 이상해요     Weird/Strange

 

Feelings

  • 좋아요        Good

  • 나빠요        Bad

  • 괜찮아요     Ok/Alright

  • 아파요        Hurt/Sick

  • 무서워요     Scary/Scared

  • 피곤해요     Tired

  • 심심해요     Bored

  • 바빠요        Busy

  • 반가워요     Glad

  • 기뻐요        Pleased

  • 즐거워요     Pleasant/Fun

  • 행복해요     Happy

  • 슬퍼요        Sad

  • 섭섭해요     Sad/Disappointed

  • 외로워요     Lonely

  • 신나요        Exciting

  • 확실해요     Certain/Sure

 

Description

  • 대단해요     Amazing

  • 중요해요     Important

  • 멋져요        Wonderful

  • 새로워요     New

  • 이상해요     Weird/Strange

  • 정확해요     Accurate/Precise

 

Fun

  • 재미있어요     Fun

  • 재미없어요     Boring

 

Taste

  • 짜요               Salty

  • 매워요            Spicy

  • 달아요            Sweet

  • 써요               Bitter

  • 셔요               Sout

  • 맛있어요         Delicious

  • 맛없어요         Disgusting in Taste

  • 배불러요         Full

  • 배고파요         Hungry

 

Temperature

  • 추워요            Cold (Weather)

  • 더워요            Hot (Weather)

  • 차가워요         Cold (Touch)

  • 뜨거워요         Hot (Touch)

  • 따뜻해요         Warm

  • 시원해요         Cool//Refreshing

 

Difficulty

  • 힘들어요         Difficult

  • 어려워요         Difficult

  • 쉬워요            Easy/Simple

  • 복잡해요         Complicated/Crowded

 

Clean

  • 깨끗해요         Clean

  • 더러워요         Dirty

 

Noise

  • 조용해요         Quiet/Silent

  • 시끄러워요      Loud/Noisy

 

Safety

  • 위험해요         Dangerous

  • 안전해요         Safe

 

Price

  • 싸요                Cheap

  • 비싸요             Expensive


 

Comparison

  • 같아요             The Same/ Like

  • 달라요             Different

  • 비슷해요          Similar

  •  

  • 많아요              A Lot

  • 적어요              Few

  •  

  • 높아요              High

  • 낮아요              Low

  •  

  • 넓어요              Wide/Spacious

  • 좁아요              Narrow

  •  

  • 커요                 Big

  • 작아요              Small

  •  

  • 길어요              Long

  • 짧아요              Short

  •  

  • 밝아요              Bright

  • 어두워요           Dark

  •  

  • 멀어요               Far

  • 가까워요           Near/Close

  •  

  • 빨라요               Fast

  • 느려요               Slow

  •  

  • 좋아요               Good

  • 나빠요               Bad

  •  

  • 강해요               Strong/Powerful

  • 약해요               Weak

  •  

  • 무거워요            Heavy/Serious

  • 가벼워요            Light/Simple

 

Right / Wrong

  • 맞아요              Correct

  • 틀려요              Wrong/Incorrect


 

It is a book. 책이예요.


~이예요 is equivalent to the linking verbs: is, are, am.  
~이예요 is always placed at the end of the sentence.
 

[Noun] + 이예요 =   It is a  [Noun].
 

You can simply place a noun in front of ~이예요 to create sentences as follows:

It is a ~
These / Those are ~
She / He is a ~
I am a ~
You are a ~

 

Example>
책이예요.        It is a book.  (책 = book)
물이예요.        It's water.   (물 = water)
선물이예요.     It's a gift.    (선물 = gift, present)
학생이예요.     I am a student. or She/He is a student.  (학생 = student)

 

Now, if ~이예요 is like a linking verb in English and you place a noun you are indicating in front, where is the subject?
Well, in Korean, the subjects are often omitted and can be inferred from the contexts.

So, to be very precise, the above examples can actually be translated as follows.

책이예요.     Is a book.
물이예요.     Is water.
선물이예요.  Is a gift.
학생이예요.  Am a student.  (or)  Is a student.   

 

  • [Noun (ending with a consonant)] + 이예요.

  • [Noun (ending wit a vowel)] + 예요.


When the noun has a final consonant (which is called 받침 in Korean), just like:
ㄱ in 책
ㄹ in 물 or 선물
ㅇ in 학생 
you add ~이예요. 

When a noun ends with a vowel, however, you add ~예요. 

Example>
강아지예요.      Is a puppy.  (강아지 = puppy)
맥주예요.         Is beer.   (맥주 = beer)
여자친구예요.   Is (my) girlfriend.  (여자 = girl, 친구 = friend)